I tried making some trees for some of the exercises for Homework 1 of Leonard Peikoff’s Grammar Course. I’ve embedded a preview of the PDF below, but I think the embedded preview is not very good, so it is probably best to view/download the PDF by using this link. I think the embedded feature may work better for stuff that is more one-sentence-at-a-time rather than huge things with multiple sentences together.Peikoff HW 1 trees
I’ve gone through Lesson 1 of this course before. I looked at my notes a bit to refresh myself on some details but mostly focused on using the course content to practice making trees.
I also made a spreadsheet of some of the terminology in Lesson 1 order to test the import feature of an iOS flashcard app I had. The spreadsheet contents are below
|Grammar is the study of what?||How to put words together to form meaningful sentences.|
|Inflection||Change in form of word in order to express a change in the use or meaning or role of a word.
E.g. "I" and "me" are the subject and object forms of "I".
|Sentence||Group of words expressing complete thought or feeling.|
|4 types of sentences||declarative (says a fact), interrogative (question), imperative (gives an order), exclamatory ("whew!" or "aha!" which is why feelings are mentioned in definition of "sentence")|
|Meaning of the period||demarcates the end of a unit|
|Expletives||empty word for getting a sentence started, which isn't in subject or predicate.
E.g. there in "There are three dogs on the corner."
|Phrase||There are three dogs on the corner.|
|Prepositions||govern spatial or temporal relationships for some bigger word that comes after them.|
|Adverb||modifies a verb, adjective, adverb. or modifies whole clause or sentence. (adverb often ends with "ly" like "ran quickly")|
|Conjunction||combining word like "and" or "but"|
|Nouns||can be objects but also e.g. "running" or "love" or "space". anything you could say "is" about.|
|Verbs||talk about action (walking, hitting, thinking) or state of being (is healthy, smells good) of some subject.|
|Verbals||word derived from verb, but not a verb. like "running". there are 3 types of verbals:
- gerund: noun verbal ("running is fun")
- participle: adjective verbal ("running water")
- “Running quickly, he soon tired.” — “running” is a participle describing “he.”
- infinitive: typically "to [verb]", variety of uses including noun
|Adjectives||modifies a noun|
|Adverbs||modifies a verb, adjective, adverb. or modifies whole clause or sentence. (adverb often ends with "ly" like "ran quickly")|
|Complement||completes a sentence. adds what's missing to e.g. "I hit" (what?) or "I met" (who?) or "I am" (what?)|
|Object||a complement that designates action rather than state. in "he hit the ball", the ball is the object of the action. but with "He is happy" then "happy" is a complement but not an object.|
|Main Clause||main part of complex multi-clause sentence, essence of thought. for good writing, your main idea should be in the main clause.|